This information is provided by
Provet for educational purposes only.
You should seek the advice of your
veterinarian if your pet is ill as only he or she can correctly advise on the
diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your pet.
There are numerous occasions when the
use of an anti-emetic drug is indicated in veterinary practice. However, these
drugs have different modes of action and understanding these is important so
that the most appropriate drug can be selected for use under specific clinical
Antiemetic drugs have different modes of action on the
complex sequence of events involved in the vomiting reflex - from visceral
receptors to the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CRTZ) in the brain.
Basically there are 2 pathways leading to vomiting :
- A bloodborne (humoral) route - uraemia, glycosides, apomorphine, other
- A neural route - vagosympathetic, chemoreceptor trigger zone, vestibular
or cerebrocortical stimulation
The following table classifies the most frequently used anti-emetics and
their uses. Some drugs have more than one mode of action.
|5-HT3 serotonergic antagonists.
||Prevent vomiting due to chemotherapy and radiation
|5-HT4 serotonergic antagonists
||Promotes gastric emptying by activation of receptors
||Chlorpromazine, Prochlorperazine, Yohimbine
||Prevent vomiting due to activation of the CRTZ or emetic
|D2 dopaminergic antagonists
||Butyrophenones, Domperidone, Metaclopramide,
||Counteract mild emesis due to chemotherapy, uraemia,
septicaemia and gastrointestinal disorders including pancreatitis.
|H2 histaminergic antagonists
|M1 cholinergic antagonists
||Erythromycin (low dose)
||Facilitates gastric emptying during fasting
||Prevent vomiting due to some types of chemotherapy (eg
Updated January 2016