A broad-spectrum inorganic protectant fungicide and foliar feed, extensively used in the form of a dry powder for dusting (as titrated sulphur or sublimed sulphur), or a wettable powder for spraying (micronized sulphur).


[affected.gif] Animals most affected
Cattle, (sheep, goats, dogs, hares).


[etiology.gif] Etiology
Accidental ingestion of the agrochemical product (through poor or careless storage of sacks). Use of micronized sulphur instead of flowers of sulphur (believed by some breeders to improve the condition of the fur of animals).


[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Titrated or sublimed sulphur does not present a particular toxicological problem. Only micronized sulphur appears to be responsible for incidents of sulphur poisoning.


[clinical.gif] Clinical features

Oral doses in mg/kg:
LD cattle 100-1000
  sheep 1000-1500
  horses 1000-1500
  hares 1000

   
Cattle
  .
Sheep

Horses



[lesions.gif] Lesions
Poorly characterized:


[case.gif] Case summaries
In a herd of 15- to 16-month-old heifers, the owner noticed one of the stock with a lateral decubitus, extremely distended. After trocarization to treat the bloat, the animal showed signs of dullness, lassitude and difficulty in getting up off the ground and had an ataxic gait. The heifer died within several hours.
A second animal also died and a third had a staggering gait. A check of the area located a sack of micronized sulphur which, inadvertently opened, had tipped over onto some hay. Six bullocks had eaten 34 kg micronized sulphur from sacks that had been discarded by the farmer. The animals presented with hypothermia, colic and intense abdominal pain, acute rectal spasms, constipation and hyperpnoea. One bull died in several hours; intestinal and pulmonary congestion were noted at autopsy.
A breeder was in the practice of giving his horses a daily dose of flowers of sulphur to improve their coats. In the belief that all of sulphur were harmless, he took no
precautions in how he stored micronized sulphur on-site. As a result, one night two sack were torn open by the horses. By the following morning, two animals presented with ataxia, diarrhoea and extremely violent colic followed by convulsions and respiraratory difficulties. One of the horses died within 12-24 hours, the other 3 days later.
The total amount of micronized sulphur absorbed was estimated to be 10 kg