Fertilizers derived from industrial, human or animal waste material.

[affected.gif] Animals most affected

[etiology.gif] Etiology
Significant ingestion of urea used as a source of non-protein nitrogen in animal feed.

[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Once ingested by animals, urea breaks down in the body to ammonia, causing a hyperammonaemia and an alkalosis. A fatal acidosis develops subsequent to lactacidaemia. Starvation, an abrupt change in diet or lack of water all contribute to an increased risk of poisoning; food rations based on concentrates reduce the severity of the intoxication.

Oral doses in g/kg:
LD cattle 1-1.5
  sheep 1-1.5
  horses 4
TD cattle 0.3-0.5

[clinical.gif] Clinical features
Peracute syndrome
Rapid death (within minutes), no obvious clinical signs.

Acute syndrome

Subacute syndrome (Predominantly gastrointestinal):

[lesions.gif] Lesions

[treatm~1.gif] Treatment
Acute syndrome

Subacute syndrome