[affected.gif] Animals most affected
All species.

[etiology.gif] Etiology

[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Sodium causes an extracellular hyperosmolality which results in very significant intracellular dehydration. Toxicity varies in relation to the availability of drinking water. If water intake is restricted and sodium chloride intake is normal, a relative poisoning occurs. If combined with water deprivation, polioencephalomalacia develops when the water intake returns to normal
Toxic doses:
TD in g/kg by mouth:
cattle 2
horses 2
pigs 2
sheep 6
dogs 4

TD as a % of the diet:
where drinking water is restricted:
cattle 1.5-2
sheep 1.5-2
pigs 0.25
poultry 0.25-2

where drinking water is freely available:
pigs 10



[clinical.gif] Clinical features

In dogs

In cattle

In pigs

In poultry

Prognosis is poor, the outcome frequently fatal after a rapid onset of clinical effects.

[lesions.gif] Lesions

[treatm~1.gif] Treatment

Symptomatic and eliminatory

[labinv~1.gif] Laboratory investigations