A mycotoxin produced by Penicillium viridicatum, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. ostianus and other moulds.


[affected.gif] Animals most affected
Dogs, pigs, poultry, cattle.


[etiology.gif] Etiology
In cold climates, the fungi grow on rye, wheat, oat and corn, especially if the crop was damp on harvesting and stored damp.


[toxic.gif] Toxicity
The kidneys are most affected.

Toxic doses in ppm in the diet;
TD  
 
cattle 120
  calves 1
  pigs 0.025-0.050

Oral doses in mg/kg ochratoxin A
LD50
rats  
 
20
 
chickens  
 
3.3-3.9
 
ducks  
 
0.025-0.15
LD  
 
dogs 7-9
TD dogs 0.1-0.3

Note: the products of poisoned animals are considered unsafe to eat.


[clinical.gif] Clinical features and lesions
Chicks
Reduced growth rate, dehydration, possibly ataxia, anaemia, catarrhal enteritis, acute nephrosis, hepatic necrosis.

Chickens
Delayed sexual development, reduced egg laying and lowered fertility, yellow liver.

Pigs
Retarded growth and delayed development, polydipsia, polyuria, renal oedema, regressive changes of the renal epithelium,with degeneration and hypertrophy.

Cattle
Anorexia, diarrhoea, lowered milk production (in calves: presence of haemorrhages in the heart and serous membranes, nephritis).

Dogs
Anorexia, vomiting, hyperthermia, polyuropolydipsia, dehydration, prostration and death may occur; purulent conjunctivitis, haemorrhagic enteritis, renal necrosis.




[treatm~1.gif] Treatment
Symptomatic care only: