A systemic carbamate insecticide and nematicide for soil treatment. Available commercially in the form of microgranules.


[affected.gif] Animals most affected
Dogs, (all species).


[etiology.gif] Etiology
Accidental ingestion of the microgranules, containing 1% or 5% of the active compound. Criminal (deliberate) poisoning is common, with meat-based baits being used to conceal the microgranules. (Dogs are the main targets of such poisoning.)


[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Methylcarbamate inhibitor of cholinesterases.
Toxic doses in mg/kg:

LD50 rats 8 - 14
  chickens 25 - 39
  ducks 0.4
  pheasants 4.2
  quail 5
  dogs 19
LD cattle 18
  sheep 9
Toxic to fish.


[clinical.gif] Clinical features
Similar to those resulting from exposure to organophosphorous compounds.
Possibility of peracute poisoning in dogs with:

In general, the clinical signs may be categorized as:


Death may occur within a few hours to several days


[lesions.gif]
Lesions
Non-specific


[treatm~1.gif]
Treatment
Antidotes
Atropine (to be used at the outset of poisoning - within the first 24 hours), 0.2 mg/kg im or sc until atropinization is attained (such as a dry mouth) and then maintained. Repeat the regimen if necessary.
Important note: the oximes (e.g. pralidoxime) are ineffective in such cases.

Symptomatic


[labinv~1.gif] Laboratory investigations
Analysis of the compound

Measurement of the level of choilnesterase inhibition
Samples should be frozen immediately as the enzyme degrades very rapidly.