Animals most affected
Cattle, sheep, pigs, (poultry, dogs).
Gas evolved from decomposing organic substances
(notably from manure pits, dung hills, rotting trash) with a characteristic foul
smell of rotten eggs; a colourless gas which is more dense than air.
A highly toxic gas, irritant and toxic to the
Not dangerous at levels which can be detected by smell.
coughing, hyperpnoea and dyspnoea;
cyanosis of the mucosae;
watering of the eyes, loss of conscious-ness;
occasionally diarrhoea, faeces may be
rapidly fatal, or recovery without sequelae.
Possibility within several minutes of exposure
to the gas of a devastating toxic syndrome, manifested by acute pulmonary oedema,
painful gasping for breath and sudden death due to respiratory paralysis and cardiac
blood coagulates poorly or fails to clot
petechiae and haemorrhages in the endocardium;
congestion of the intestine;
degeneration of the liver and kidneys.
- oxygen therapy or artificial ventilation
(using a mixture: 90%)