Animals most affected
Cattle, sheep, horses, dogs.
ingestion of hydrocarbons: petrol, diesel, solvents, oil and oil products, or of
liquid insecticides which contain hydrocarbons (e.g. kerosene) to facilitate dispersion;
drinking water which has been used to wash out storage drums or containers
used to transport insecticidal preparations;
inhalation either directly or, more frequently,
following ingestion and regurgitation of ingested hydrocarbons.
Variable according to the chemical composition
and nature of the hydrocarbon, its degree of refinement and other factors. Irritant
agent, particularly to the lungs. Toxic effects may also result from the chemical
additives present in the hydrocarbons: sulphur compounds, lead, etc. Toxic doses
are not well established. Based on pulmonary exposure, the lethal dose is dependent
on the nature of the hydrocarbon.
In ml/kg (as a total dose):
40-70 administered over 7 days.
Clinical features Ingestion only
weakness, loss of weight;
faeces have a strong smell of petrol, oceasionally the breath and the milk may
be redolent of the hydrocarbon;
vomiting, constipation and flatulence may oceur;
occasionally convulsions, collapse and death.
(Often as a consequence of ingestion):
coughing, rales, increased lung sounds;
48-72 hours post-exposure there is an increase in the permeability of the pulmonary
vasculature and the possibility of bacteriological
complications, leading to a fatal bronchopneumonia.
Signs of overt poisoning may develop slowly
(over 14 days).