[affected.gif] Animals most affected
Cattle, pigs, goats, (all species), wild animals (especially deer).

[etiology.gif] Etiology
Chronic poisoning, or fluorosis, develops following:

[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Oral doses: ppm of dry weight of fluoride in fodder at levels which do not produce clinical signs of poisoning.
young cattle <30
milking cows <30
beef cattle <40


[clinical.gif] Clinical features and lesions
Present in a definite sequence

Dental effects

General effects

Skeletal effects

[treatm~1.gif] Treatment
No antidote:

Using the following formula, calculate on giving about l00-150 g/animal per day:

Ferrando formula  
  parts per 100
bone flour (sterilized) 55
monosodium phosphate 30
aluminium sulphate 5
sodium chloride 10
vitamin A 100 000 iu/l00 g
vitamin D3 30 000 iu/100 g

[labinv~1.gif] Laboratory investigations