Orange-yellow herbicides and desiccants with a strong tendency to discolour matter
with which they come into contact. Sometimes used as a fungicide.
Animals most affected
Cattle, hares, rabbits and dogs.
accidental ingestion of the product or the of recently treated vegetation;
poisoning may arise through percutaneous absorption following direct application
to the skin or coat, or by walking through treated fields (this affects grouse
discharge to water or run-off into water courses and subsequent contamination
(causing poisoning to fish in particular);
several cases of criminal or deliberate poisoning involving cattle and dogs have
Note: the residue on vegetation and in soils is minimal, 24-48 hours post-application.
Compounds in this category
Dinoseb, dinoterb, dinitro-orthocresol
Dinitro compounds stimulate tissue respiration
while simultaneously impairing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. The main toxic
action is the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, converting all cellular energy
in the form of heat and causing extreme hyperthermia. In addition, the gut flora
in ruminants are able to further reduce the dinitro compounds to diamine metabolites
which are capable of inducing methaemoglobinaemia.
Toxic doses: see individual compounds.
hyperthermia with intense thirst;
oliguria with muscular weakness, prostration progressing to coma;
occasionally colic, the urine and faeces having a chrome-yellow colour, turning
black on exposure to air;
yellow staining or discoloration of skin and fur (notably the throat, feet and
blood becoming chocolate-brown in colour;
death may occur within a few minutes to several hours if large amounts have been
ingested, preceded by convulsions or whilst the animal is in a comatose state;
otherwise may be delayed (3-4 days), with acute pulmonary oedema.
degeneration of the liver;
yellow discoloration of mucous membranes and sclera (mild jaundice);
variable degree of pulmonary oedema, cerebral oedema;
following death, rapid onset of rigor mortis.
No antidote. Symptomatic care only, may in
itself prove to be hazardous to the animal:
induce emesis or perform gastric lavage
using a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate (in carnivores);
oral activated vegetable charcoal and
intense oxygen therapy (necessary in
carnivores, where possible);
control hyperthermia, do not use antipyretic
drugs but use physical cooling measures, e.g. cool baths or sponging; place animal
in a shaded area;
dextrose-saline infusions in combination
with diuretics and CNS stimulants;
as a final measure, tranquillizers (not
methylene blue solution, 2-4%, 10 mg/
kg iv, every 8 hours for the first 24-48 hours;
ascorbic acid, 5-10 mg/kg iv, regimen
contents of the stomach and rumen;
The samples should be frozen immediately
as the compound degrades rapidly.