A chemical element and trace metal.

[affected.gif] Animals most affected
Cattle, (sheep, goats, poultry).

[etiology.gif] Etiology
Ingestion of water contaminated by industrial effluents from metal-coating processes. Cases of poisoning are uncommon.

[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Irritant chemical. Toxic doses are poorly established.
Oral doses in mg/kg:
LD adult cattle 600 - 800
  calves 30 40 for 30 days

Clinical features



Progression towards death, often rapid in its onset (within several hours).

[lesions.gif] Lesions

[treatm~1.gif] Treatment
No antidote. Symptomatic care only. The following may be tried but may be of limited value:
adsorbents (activated vegetable charcoal), milk of magnesia;
EDTA or dimercaprol are both ineffective as chelating agents.

Laboratory investigations