Most commonly Apis mellifera (honey bee).


[affected.gif] Animals most affected
Birds, horses, dogs, cats, cattle.


[etiology.gif]
Etiology
Ingestion of the insect; multiple stings following disturbance of a swarm, loud noises or brusque movements near a beehive. Certain species of bees are known to be aggressive.


[toxic.gif] Toxicity
The venom contains:

The venom is immunoactive.
The toxic response varies according to the type of bee involved, the age of the animal involved and its immune status (i.e. whether or not it has been stung previously). The severity of the envenomation also depends upon the site of the sting, the throat presenting particular problems.


[clinical.gif] Clinical features and lesions
At the site of the bee sting

General effects
(Especially in cases of multiple stings):

If the sting is in or around the throat
The clinical sigus include:

There may be allergic reactions in animals which have been previously sensitized. These reactions may develop into anaphylactic shock.

In birds


[treatm~1.gif] Treatment
Using tweezers, carefully lift out the sting, being careful not to squeeze the venom sac.

Local treatment
Apply

General treatment
If there is an allergic reaction and to minimize shock:

Emergency tracheostomy may be indicated if the throat is swollen and causing obstruction of the airways.
Attempt to desensitize the animal by subcutaneous injections of total extracts of bee venom over a period of several years.