[affected.gif] Animals most affected
Cattle, sheep.


[etiology.gif] Etiology
Significant ingestion of the compound through over-enrichment of animal foodstuffs, increasing the supply of non-proteinaceous nitrogen. Direct ingestion of fertilizer composed of ammonium salts.



[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Direct absorption of ammonia across the walls of the digestive tract, resulting in hyperammoniaemia (and may cause hepatic encephalopathy) and an alkalosis. As a result of lactacidaemia, an acidosis may become apparent towards the final stages of poisoning.
Oral doses in mg/kg:
LD cattle l-2 (ammonium chloride)
  cattle 3 (ammonium sulphate)
  horses 1.5 (ammonium sulphate)




[clinical.gif] Clinical features
Peracute
Rapidly fatal (several minutes), no clinical features present.

Acute
(predominantly neurological):

Subacute
(Predominantly gastrointestinal):


[lesions.gif] Lesions
Non-specific.


[treatm~1.gif] Treatment
Acute form

Subacute form