Rhamnus frangula (buckthorn, black alder, black dogwood, frangula bark). A member of the plant family RHAMNACEAE. Deciduous shrub or small tree with smooth yellow bark, large feather-veined leaves and inconspicuous green flowers. The fruits are drupes, green when unripe, becoming red then black when fully ripe. The berries contain two or three angular seeds.


[affected.gif] Animals most affected

Cattle (sheep, goats, horses).


[etiology.gif] Etiology

Direct ingestion of the plant, notably of the bark and leaves.


[toxic.gif] Toxicity
Contains the purgative glycosides emodin (or trioxymethylanthraquinone) and franguloside, mainly in the berries, leaves and bark. Toxic doses not known.


[clinical.gif] Clinical features


[lesions.gif] Lesions


[treatm~1.gif] Treatment
No antidote. Symptomatic care only: