Rhamnus frangula (buckthorn, black alder, black dogwood, frangula bark). A
member of the plant family RHAMNACEAE. Deciduous shrub or small tree with smooth
yellow bark, large feather-veined leaves and inconspicuous green flowers. The fruits
are drupes, green when unripe, becoming red then black when fully ripe. The berries
contain two or three angular seeds.
Animals most affected
Cattle (sheep, goats, horses).
Direct ingestion of the plant, notably of the bark and leaves.
Contains the purgative glycosides emodin (or trioxymethylanthraquinone) and franguloside,
mainly in the berries, leaves and bark. Toxic doses not known.
violent diarrhoea with colic, abdominal pain and cramps; faecal matter often
blood-stained, indicative of haemorrhagia;
total prostration, moderate fever;
possibility of death within several hours.
No antidote. Symptomatic care only:
activated vegetable charcoal;
atropine 0.05A).1 mg/kg (25% iv; 75% sc);
treat for shock.