Diagnosis can be difficult:
- Culture and cytology may be unsuccessful, yet 40% of normal dogs may be positive.
- Histology of biopsies obtained blind from dogs is rather hit and miss.
- A combination of radiology (loss of turbinate structure), rhinoscopy (using a bronchoscope, or even an otoscope) and serology is most useful in dogs.
- Diagnosis in cats is often only made post mortem.
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