- CPV-2 is a far more important pathogen than CPV-1, and a common disease in dogs of all ages and breeds. CPV-1 has been demonstrated in dogs with mild diarrhoea but its pathogenicity is unclear.
- The primary route of natural CPV-2 infection is by ingestion, although transplacental transmission can also occur. CPV-2 requires actively dividing cells to replicate, and thus it has a predilection for the cells of the lymphoid system bone marrow and crypt epithelia of the intestinal tract, and, in puppies under 4 weeks of age, cardiac myocytes.
- After ingestion, CPV-2 initially replicates in oropharyngeal, mesenteric and thymic lymphoid tissue. Subsequent haematogenous generalisation distributes the virus to lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, intestinal epithelial cells; and kidney. Infection of these tissues leads to the development of clinical signs from day 4 post-infection.
- Virus particles may be found in faeces as early as day 3 after inoculation, increasing in number up to day 6, then declining markedly by day 12. CPV-2 is rarely found in faecal material as virus shedding ceases once clinical signs develop.
- CPV-2 cardiomyopathy only occurs if pups are infected in the first 4 weeks of life and the pups have no maternally derived antibody.
Pathological findings of CPV-2 intestinal infection
Pathological findings of CPV-2 myocardial infection
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