- Transmission is mainly through direct cat-to-cat contact through infectious discharges - oral, nasal and conjunctival secretions. For FCV, virus may also be in urine and faeces, although probably not important epidemiologically.
- Indirect transmission may occur in the short-term, particularly in catteries. Contaminated secretions may be present on cages, personnel, and feeding and cleaning utensils. Not of long-term significance since viruses relatively short-lived outside the cat.
- Aerosol transmission is not thought to be of major significance though sneezed macrodroplets may travel over 1-2 m.
- Transmission is reduced where measures are taken to minimise external virus survival, e.g. disinfection, optimum environmental temperature, low relative humidity, and adequate ventilation (15-20 air changes an hour).
- Efficacy of transmission depends on amount of virus being shed by infecting animal, and duration and intimacy of contact. Although the concentration of virus in the secretions of carriers and acutely infected cats may be similar, the viruses spread more easily from acute cases, probably because discharges are more copious. However, carriers are undoubtedly important, particularly with the close contact seen in colonies.
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