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VACCINES - SHEEP& GOATS

Note for Farmers:

This information is provided by Provet for educational purposes only.

You should seek the advice of your veterinarian if your stock are ill as only he or she can correctly advise on the diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your animals.

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Description
Vaccines provide animals with protection against serious infectious diseases or toxins. They can work in several ways :

  • Passive Immunity - antiserum (ready-made antibodies) is injected into the animal to immediately attack the infection. Immunity of this type is only short-acting as long as the antibodies are active in the blood, usually 3-12 weeks. An example of this type of vaccine is antiserum against Clostridium perfringens
  • Active Immunity - injecting live or organisms (or fragments of the organism, or inactivated toxins) into an animal stimulates the animals immune system to produce antibodies against the infectious agent or toxin in the vaccine. Most sheep and goat vaccines are of this type and they are used against bacteria, viruses or parasites. Protection generally lasts longer with live vaccines than with killed vaccines 

Interference with the development of immunity following vaccination can occur in certain circumstances :


Sheep & Goat Vaccines Available in the UK

Below is a list of all Ovine vaccines licensed for use in the UK (Correct as at 1st October 2013). Not all brands may be available depending upon marketing decisions by the various marketing license holders. Also, the content of individual vaccines may be changed so you are advised to check the current details for these vaccine brands at the Veterinary Medicines Directorate website (www.vmd.defra.gov.uk )

Key

BT Bluetongue

CA Chlamydofila abortus

CC Clostridium chauvoei

CH - Clostridium haemolyticum

CN - Clostridium novyi,

CP - Clostridium perfringens

CSe - Clostridium septicum,

CSo= Clostridium sordellii,

CT- Clostridium tetani

DN - Dichelobacter nodosus

LI Louping Ill virus

MH Mannheimia haemolytica

MP - Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

OV Orf virus

PT Pasteurella  trehalosi

TG Toxoplasma gondii

 

Vaccine Components

Brand names

Marketing License Holder

Inactivated Bacterial vaccines

 

 

CA

Mydiavac

Novartis

CC

Blackleg vaccine

Blackleg vaccine

Pfizer

Intervet

CC + CH + CN + CP +CSe + CT

Covexin 8

Pfizer

CC + CH + CN + CP + CSe + CSo + CT

Bravoxin 10

Covexin 10

Intervet

Zoetis

CC + CN + CP + CS + CT + MH + PT

Hepatavx P Plus

Intervet

CC + CP + CS + CT + MH + PT

Ovivac P Plus

Intervet

CP + CT

Lambivac

Intervet

DN

Footvax

Intervet

MH + PT

Ovipast PLus

Intervet

MP

Gudair

CZ  Veterinaria SA

Inactivated Viral vaccines

 

 

BT

Bluevac BTV8

Bovilis BVT8

Btvpur Alsap 1

BTVPUR Alsap 1-8

BTVPUR Alsap 2-4

BTVPUR Alsap 8

Zulvac 1 ovis

Zulvac 1 + 8 ovis

Zulvac 8 ovis

CZ Veterinaria SA

Intervet

Merial

Merial

Merial

Zoetis

Zoetis

Zoetis

Zoetis

FMDV

Aftopur AlSap

Aftopur DOE

Aftovaxpur DOE

Merial

Merial

Merial

LI

Louping ill vaccine

Intervet

SV

Bovilis SBV

Intervet

Live Bacterial vaccines

 

 

CA

Cevac Chlamydia

Enzovac

Ceva

Intervet

Live Parasitic vaccines

 

 

TG

Toxovax

Intervet

Live Viral vaccines

 

 

OV

Scabivax forte

Intervet


Contraindications
Sheep and Goats  should not be vaccinated if they  :

  • Are not well
  • Have a high body temperature
  • Are within 6 weeks of having been given corticosteroids or other drugs that can reduce the immune response
  • Have been treated with antibiotics which might affect the live organisms in a vaccine
  • Stressed

Side Effects
There are a number of side-effects that may be seen following vaccination, including the following :

  • The organisms in live vaccines can sometimes cause mild signs of the disease and they can be transferred to other animals in a herd and cause mild signs of disease in them as well
  • Live vaccines may damage the fetus in pregnant animals, so they should not be used in pregnant animals if a killed vaccine is available.
  • Some live vaccines can result in a long term "latent" infection which may affect blood tests and have implications on the future movement of animals
  • Vaccines can cause a local reaction and irritation at the site of injection
  • Hair loss, and sometimes a change of hair/wool colour can occur at the injection site
  • If the vaccine is administered by injection without cleaning the skin surface infection may be introduced into the site resulting in abscess formation
  • Rarely an individual animal may show a severe shock (anaphylactic) reaction following vaccination. Prompt veterinary attention is needed or the animals life can be at risk.

Storage
Vaccines will lose their potency if they are not stored properly. They should be stored as specified by the manufacturers, and usually this will require storage in a refrigerator at 2-8o C. Most vaccines should not be frozen, and they should not be allowed to come into contact with direct sunlight, or disinfectants.


Administration
Vaccines can be administered by various routes, but subcutaneous or intramuscular injection is the most common route. The intranasal route is used for some vaccines against respiratory diseases.

The skin at the injection site should be cleaned and wiped with spirit, and sterile syringes and needles should always be used . Repeated use of the same needle increases the risk of transmission of disease between animals and should be discouraged.


Health and Safety Considerations
All sharps used in the vaccination process (glass vials, needles etc) should be placed into an approved sharps box, and be disposed of by an approved method.

Vaccines should be handled with care, and every precaution should be taken to avoid accidental injection of the person administering the vaccine, or an assistant restraining the animal.

Vaccines that are oil-based cause a severe, painful swelling if self-injected and they can result in loss of a finger due to reduced blood supply caused by the vaccine.

Some live vaccines are potential harmful to people, for example toxoplasmosis vaccine should not be handled by pregnant women, young fertile women, or people with poor immune systems. Protective gloves and eye goggles should be worn when handling these vaccines.

 


Frequency of Administration
The frequency of administration of vaccines depends on several factors including the following :

  • the type of vaccine
  • the age of the animal
  • the circumstances under which the vaccine is being given, and 
  • the route of administration. 

Withdrawal Periods
Sheep and goats can not be sent for slaughter and milk may not be sent for human consumption after the administration of some medications. Vaccines usually have a withdrawal period of nil for slaughter and milk. Exceptions are the following :

Footrot vaccine - should not be given to dairy sheep

Toxoplasmosis vaccine -  for slaughter for human consumption the withdrawal period is 6 weeks following vaccination 

 

Updated October 2013