Various surveys have been conducted in endemic and non-epidemic areas. For example, the serological evidence from 3 studies conducted in Spain showed positive reactions in 26%, 58.6% and 93% of tested dogs respectively. In humans reactive sera have been found in as many as 82% of samples collected from small villages in Salamanca.
In a study conducted in central Spain ticks were removed from dogs and tested for MSF and over 40% were positive.
Dogs living in endemic areas may be asymptomatic , but dogs that contract the disease may show similar signs to humans.
Diagnosis is confirmed by serological testing.
Antibiotics. Tetracycline, chloramphenicol, doxycycline and enrofloxacin are all effective against the organism.
Prevention - avoid tick infested areas in endemic parts of the world. Remove attached ticks as soon as possible
Long term problems
Updated October 2013