E. hoshinae, animals and humans,
E. ictaluri, nonmotile species in catfish.
E. tarda, (Edwardsiella anguillimortifera) in aquatic animals and reptiles including snakes and seals.. Occasionally found in urine, blood, and faeces of humans. In India found in children with diarrhoea.
Infected animals may be asymptomatic but the disease is potentially fatal if left untreated. In humans it has been associated with gastroenteritis, wound infections, peritonitis and meningitis and has been reported as a cause of diarrhoea in children in India. .
Fish that die are usually pale with widespread haemorrhages and abscesses. Other signs may include oedema, ascites, skin erosions, gill inflammation, behavioural changes, prolapse of the rectum, eye lesions and generalised organomegaly.
Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for infected animals and all species are susceptible to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, most β-lactams, quinolones, antifolates, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin. (Stock 2001)
There are vaccinations available to prevent the disease in fish. Other preventive measures include low stocking densities,good water quality and avoidance of stress such as changes in water temperature, pH or oxygen concentrations .
Stock I and Wiedermann B. (2001) Natural antibiotic susceptibilities of Edwardsiella tarda, E.ictaluri and E.hoshinae Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Aug 2001; 45(8): 2245–2255.
Updated January 2016