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VACCINES - CATTLE

Note for Farmers:

This information is provided by Provet for educational purposes only.

You should seek the advice of your veterinarian if your stock are ill as only he or she can correctly advise on the diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your animals.

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Description
Vaccines provide animals with protection against serious infectious diseases or toxins. They can work in several ways :

  • Passive Immunity - antiserum (ready-made antibodies) is injected into the animal to immediately attack the infection. Immunity of this type is only short-acting as long as the antibodies are active in the blood, usually 3-12 weeks. An example of this type of vaccine is antiserum against tetanus.
  • Active Immunity - injecting live or inactivated organisms (or fragments of the organism, or inactivated toxins) into an animal stimulates the animals immune system to produce antibodies against the infectious agent or toxin in the vaccine. Most cattle vaccines are of this type and they are used against bacteria, viruses or parasites. Protection generally lasts longer with live vaccines than with killed vaccines 

Interference with the development of immunity following vaccination can occur in certain circumstances :


Cattle Vaccines Available in the UK

Below is a list of all Bovine vaccines licensed for use in the UK (Correct as at 1st October 2013). Not all brands may be available depending upon marketing decisions by the various marketing license holders. Also, the content of individual vaccines may be changed so you are advised to check the current details for these vaccine brands at the Veterinary Medicines Directorate website (www.vmd.defra.gov.uk )

Key

BC Bovine coronavirus

BPi- Bovine parainfluenzavirus 3

BR Bovine rotavirus

BRSV Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

BT Bluetongue virus

BVDV Bovine viral diarrhoea virus

CB- Coxiella burnetti

CC Clostridium chauvoei

CH - Clostridium haemolyticum

CN - Clostridium novyi,

CP - Clostridium perfringens

CSe - Clostridium septicum,

CSo= Clostridium sordellii,

CT- Clostridium tetani

DV - Dictyocaulus viviparus

EC Escherichia coli

FMDV Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

IBRV Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

LB Leptospira borgpetersenii

LH Leptospira hardjo

MH Mannheimia haemolytica

SA Staphylococcus aureus

SD- Salmonella  dublin

ST Salmonella typhymurium

SV Schmallenberg virus

TV- Trichophyton verrucosum

 

Vaccine Components

Brand names

Marketing License Holder

Inactivated Bacterial vaccines

 

 

CB

Coxevac

Ceva

CC

Blackleg vaccine

Blackleg vaccine

Pfizer

Intervet

CC + CH + CN + CS + CT

Tribovax T

Intervet

CC + CH + CN + CP +CSe + CT

Covexin 8

Pfizer

CC + CH + CN + CP + CSe + CSo + CT

Bravoxin 10

Covexin 10

Intervet

Zoetis

EC + SA

Startvac

Laboratorios Hipra SA

LB

Spirovac

Zoetis

LH

Leptavoid H

Intervet

MH

Pastobov

Rispoval pasteurella

Merial

Pfizer

SD + ST

Bovivac S

Intervet

Inactive Viral and Bacterial vaccines

 

 

BPi  + BRSV + MH

Bovilis bovipast RSP

Intervet

BC + BR + EC

Lactovac

Rotavec corona

Trivacton 6

Zoetis

INtervet

Merial

Inactivated Viral vaccines

 

 

BPi + BRSV + BVDV

Rispoval 3 BRSV Pi 3 BVD

Zoetis

BPi + BRSV + BVDV + IBRV

Rispoval 4

Zoetis

BT

Bluevac BTV8

Bovilis BVT8

Btvpur Alsap 1

BTVPUR Alsap 1-8

BTVPUR Alsap 8

Zulvac 1 bovis

Zulvac 1 + 8 bovis

Zulvac 8 bovis

CZ Veterinaria SA

Intervet

Merial

Meria

Merial

Zoetis

Zoetis

Zoetis

BVDV

Bovidec

Bovilis BVD

Novartis

Intervet

FMDV

Aftopur AlSap

Aftopur DOE

Aftovaxpur DOE

Merial

Merial

Merial

IBRV

Bovilis IBR

Ibraxion

Rispoval IBR

Intervet

Merial

Zoetis

SV

Bovilis SBV

Intervet

Live and Inactivated Viral vaccines

 

 

BPi + BRSV + BVDV

Rispoval  3 BRSV Pi3 BVD

Zoetis

BPi + BRSV + BVDV + IBRV

Rispoval 4

Zoetis

Live Fungal vaccines

 

 

TV

Bovilis Ringvac

Intervet

Live Parasitic  vaccines

 

 

DV

Bovilis huskvac

Intervet

Live Viral vaccines

 

 

BRSV

Rispoval RS

Pfizer

IBRV

Bovilis IBR

Hiprabovis IBR

Rispoval IBR

Tracherine

Intervet

Laboratorios hipra SA

Zoetis

Pfizer

IBRV + BPi

Imuresp RP

Rispoval RS + Pi3

Pfizer

Zoetis

 

 

 


Contraindications
Cattle should not be vaccinated if they  :

  • Are not well
  • Have a high body temperature
  • Are within 6 weeks of having been given corticosteroids or other drugs that can reduce the immune response
  • Have been treated with antibiotics which might affect the live organisms in a vaccine
  • Stressed

Side Effects
There are a number of side-effects that may be seen following vaccination, including the following :

  • The organisms in live vaccines can sometimes cause mild signs of the disease and they can be transferred to other animals in a herd and cause mild signs of disease in them as well
  • Live vaccines may damage the fetus in pregnant animals, so they should not be used in pregnant animals if a killed vaccine is available.
  • Some live vaccines can result in a long term "latent" infection which may affect blood tests and have implications on the future movement of animals
  • Vaccines can cause a local reaction and irritation at the site of injection
  • Hair loss, and sometimes a change of hair colour can occur at the injection site
  • If the vaccine is administered by injection without cleaning the skin surface infection may be introduced into the site resulting in abscess formation
  • Rarely an individual animal may show a severe shock (anaphylactic) reaction following vaccination. In cattle this most often shows as sudden onset breathing difficulty. Prompt veterinary attention is needed or the animals life can be at risk.

Storage
Vaccines will lose their potency if they are not stored properly. They should be stored as specified by the manufacturers, and usually this will require storage in a refrigerator at 2-8o C. Most vaccines should not be frozen, and they should not be allowed to come into contact with direct sunlight, or disinfectants.


Administration
Vaccines can be administered by various routes, but subcutaneous or intramuscular injection is the most common route. The intranasal route is used for some vaccines against respiratory diseases.

The skin at the injection site should be cleaned and wiped with spirit, and sterile syringes and needles should always be used . Repeated use of the same needle increases the risk of transmission of disease between animals and should be discouraged.


Health and Safety Considerations
All sharps used in the vaccination process (glass vials, needles etc) should be placed into an approved sharps box, and be disposed of by an approved method.

Vaccines should be handled with care, and every precaution should be taken to avoid accidental injection of the person administering the vaccine, or an assistant restraining the animal.

Vaccines that are oil-based cause a severe, painful swelling if self-injected and they can result in loss of a finger due to reduced blood supply caused by the vaccine.

Some live vaccines are potential harmful to people, for example toxoplasmosis vaccine should not be handled by pregnant women, young fertile women, or people with poor immune systems. Protective gloves and eye goggles should be worn when handling these vaccines.


Frequency of Administration
The frequency of administration of vaccines depends on several factors including the following :

  • the type of vaccine
  • the age of the animal
  • the circumstances under which the vaccine is being given, and 
  • the route of administration. 

Withdrawal Periods
Cattle can not be sent for slaughter and milk may not be sent for human consumption after the administration of some medications. Vaccines usually have a withdrawal period of nil for slaughter and milk.