Table 6.8 Paraneoplastic signs in cancer.

Clinical sign Neoplasm Cause
Weight loss - cachexia All types - particularly malignancies Complex alterations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
Inappetance or anorexia
Weakness, tremors, behaviour changes, collapse, seizures, coma Insulinoma, liver tumours,lymphoma, large tumours, e.g. fibrosarcoma Hypoglycaemia
Polydipsia, polyuria, cardiac arrhythmias, renal disease (nephrocalcinosis), vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of appetite Lymphoma, multiple myeloma, perianal adenocarcinoma, secondary bone metastases, mammary carcinomas, parathyroid tumours Hypercalcaemia
Reduced skin turgor. High PCV. Electrolyte imbalance Any tumour Dehydration
Polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, hyperactivity, weight loss, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Thyroid adenoma (cats), thyroid carcinoma (dogs) Hyperthyroidism
Collapse. Haemorrhagic gastroenteritis Mast cell tumour Hyperhistaminaemia
Haemorrhagic gastroenteritis Pancreatic tumour (gastrinoma) Hypergastrinaemia
Acute blindness due to retinal detachment, renal failure, cardiac faliure Thyroid tumour, renal tumour, renal tumour, phaeochromocytoma Hypertension
Bleeding, lethargy, pale mucous membranes, hypervolaemia Any tumour - particularly haematopoietic, hameangiosarcoma, leukaemia Anaemia, thrombocytopenia, abnormal coagulation
Seizures, renal disease Multiple myeloma, lymphoma, leukaemia Hypergammaglobulinaemia
Polydipsia, polyuria Adrenal tumour (Cushing's syndrome) Hyperadrenocorticism
Reduced appetite Brain tumour Suppression of hypothalamic function
Unilateral reduced testicular size, pendulous prepuce,pancytopenia Sertoli cell tumour Excessive oestrogen production
Thrombotic infarcts, bleeding and diathesis Any tumour but especially haematopietic tumours, haemangiosarcoma, carcinoma, lymphosarcoma, granulocytic leukaemia Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Lameness, periosteal reaction Any tumour mass in chest (primary or secondary, benign or malignant) Hypertrophic oesteopathy - causes unknown
Intermittent weakness and collapse on exercise Thymoma Myasthenia gravis