3.4 NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES OF OLD AGE CHRONIC 'OLD DOG' ENCEPHALITIS VESTIBULAR DISEASE
Both adult cats and dogs can present with acute onset severe vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, leaning and nystagmus In both species the condition is frequently misdiagnosed as stroke' although post-mortem examinations of the brain in such cases have failed to detect the presence of haemorrhages or infarcts.

The aetiopathogenesis of this syndrome is unknown but it needs to be differentiated from vestibular signs associated with infection (particularly from otitis externa/interna/media, or haemotogenous spread), toxicity (particularly antibiotics such as neomycin, streptomycin and gentamicin), nutritional deficiency (e.g. thiamin deficiency in cats) or neoplasia. Vessigns associated with neoplasia are usually slowly progressive and refractory to treatment.

No specific treatment can be recommended but in both species the condition is self-limiting. Dogs are usually normal within 1-2 weeks, cats in 2-3 weeks.