most important screening test for renal insufficiency is urine specific gravity,
which can be measured using an hydrometer or refractometer. The latter are in common use
and give reliable results.
Normal range: 1.03-1.060
Normal range: 1.015-1.045
A pale coloured urine with a low specific gravity indicates
increased water excretion (polyuria) and is seen in many of the clinical conditions
which are common in older cats and dogs, e.g. renal failure, diabetes, hyperadrenocorticism
(dogs), canine pyometra, hypercalcaemia, and liver disease.
A high urine specific gravity indicates urine concentration
and may be caused by decreased renal perfusion as in shock, dehydration or cardiac