Monitoring Monitoring

Throughout anaesthesia it has been recommended that the following parameters should be monitored (Dodman et al. 1984):

(1) heart rate and rhythm
(2) respiratory rate and character
(3) pulse rate and quality
(4) mucous membrane colour
(5) capillary filling rate
(6) ECG
(7) rectal temperature.

In some cases the following should also be monitored:

(1) arterial blood pressure (direct or indirect)
(2) urinary output
(3) haematocrit
(4) total serum protein
(5) blood gases.