Left-sided heart failure
Left-sided heart failure causes increased pulmonary venous pressure and pulmonary
oedema. The animal presents with pulmonary signs due to congestion, i.e. coughing,
increased respiratory noise on auscultation, dyspnoea, orthopnoea, cyanosis. Excitation
or exertion usually exacerbate the signs.
Left-sided heart failure is common in geriatric patients being caused by chronic
valvular endocardiosis and cardiomyopathies which are both common, and myocarditis
which is rare.