Left-sided heart failure Left-sided heart failure

Left-sided heart failure causes increased pulmonary venous pressure and pulmonary oedema. The animal presents with pulmonary signs due to congestion, i.e. coughing, increased respiratory noise on auscultation, dyspnoea, orthopnoea, cyanosis. Excitation or exertion usually exacerbate the signs.

Left-sided heart failure is common in geriatric patients being caused by chronic valvular endocardiosis and cardiomyopathies which are both common, and myocarditis which is rare.