Chapter 2 Chapter 2

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM




KEY POINTS
 
 
(1) Cardiovascular disease is very common in old dogs.
(2) Heart disease is often subclinical and the onset of heart failure insidious.
(3) The incidence and severity of chronic valvular lesions increase with advancing age in dogs.
(4) Concurrent disease in other organ systems is common.
(5) Except for Stage IV emergency cases, a full physical examination is necessary to confirm the presence of concomitant disease before specific therapy is started.
(6) Minimise the exposure of geriatric animals to cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and high dietary salt intake.

2.1 REDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION

2.2 AGE-RELATED TISSUE CHANGES

2.3 DIAGNOSTIC AIDS

2.4 GERIATRIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

2.5 TREATMENT OF GERIATRIC HEART DISEASE

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING