Table 6.1 Basic rules for management of horses with cardiac disease


  1. Make a specific diagnosis.
  2. Determine whether or not the disease is causing clinical signs at present. Consider whether it may deteriorate in the future.
  3. Identify complicating factors such as systemic illness, endocarditis, management limitations.
  4. Corrective treatment if appropriate.
  5. Palliative treatment if appropriate.
  6. Prognosis and advice for future use.