Table 3.4 Classification of functional and pathological murmurs


Timing Duration Character Intensity PMI Radiation Diagnosis
Systolic early-mid crescendo-decrescendo 1-3/6 basal areas localised functional murmur
pansystolic plateau gd 2-6 L apical area dorsal and cranial/caudal mitral regurgitation
pansystolic plateau gd 2-6 tricuspid area dorsal and cranial/caudal tricuspid regurgitation
pansystolic plateau gd 3-6 usually right sternal border to left +/-left basal ventricular septal defect
holosystolic plateau gd 2-6 L apical area dorsal and cranial/caudal mitral regurgitation
holosystolic plateau gd 2-6 tricuspid area dorsal and cranial/caudal tricuspid regurgitation
late systolic crescendo gd 2-5 L apical area dorsal and cranial/caudal mitral regurgitation (? prolapse)
late systolic crescendo gd 2-5 tricuspid area dorsal and cranial/caudal tricuspid regurgitation (? prolapse)
Diastolic early short 'whoop' gd 1-3 basal or AV areas localised functional murmur
presystolic grating gd 1-3 AV region localised functional murmur
holodiastolic decrescendo gd 1-6 left basal area ventral +/- right aortic regurgitation