Table 3.2 Clinical signs of cardiac disease


Mild disease no clinical signs
reduced exercise tolerance
Moderate disease tachycardia
tachypnoea
dyspnoea following exercise
abnormal arterial pulse
jugular distension
oedema over ventral abdomen
oedema in distal limbs
pathological arrhythmias
Severe disease cool extremities
weight loss
reduced capillary refill time
cough (left-sided failure)
dyspnoea at rest
collapse