Table 3.1 Check list for clinical findings in horses with cardiac disease

Backgrounds details

Age, sex, breed, use

Insurance, prospective use, prospective sale


Management, e.g. bedding - straw/shavings/paper

Feeding, e.g. dry or soaked hay, concentrates, supplements

General health considerations e.g. vaccination, worming

Previous/current medical problems:

viral infection in individual or in-contact animals cough

URT noise epistaxis

tachypnoea \ dyspnoea


weight loss

appetite and water intake

Performance history

Main presenting signs

Duration of presenting signs

Treatment if any

Date of last auscultation

Clinical examination


Body condition, demeanour

Check approximate age

Mucous membranes: CRT, colour

Arterial pulse: rate, rhythm, quality, consistency

head and neck: nasal discharge, lymph nodes, larynx, scars from previous surgery

Jugular vein: patency, distension, pulsation

Ventral abdomen, sheath, distal limbs: oedematous filling

Respiratory pattern and rate

Respiratory sounds (including re~breathing bag)

Cardiac area: palpation, auscultation, percussion