Table 2.2 Causes of systolic and diastolic failure

Systolic heart failure

Mitral valve regurgitation

Severe aortic valve regurgitation

Severe tricuspid valve regurgitation

Myocardial disease

Arrhythmias (supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular tachycardias)

Exacerbated by volume overload, increased myocardial oxygen consumption, high demand e.g. exercise, anaemia, pregnancy, fever

Diastolic heart failure

Myocardial disease, especially fibrosis

Pericardial effusion with tamponade

Constrictive pericarditis

Tachycardia> l40 bpm

(Exacerbated by atrial fibrillation and systolic failure)