Chapter 4
Chapter 4

Diagnostic Aids in Equine Cardiology

The most important part of investigation of the cardiovascular system in all species is clinical examination and in particular auscultation. Following this, further diagnostic aids are used to provide additional information about disease processes and their effects. An increasing number of diagnostic aids are availThanks to the advent of new technologies it is now possible to obtain objective data about cardiac function which help to identify abnormalities and aid judgement of their severity. The use of these techniques is at the centre of continuing research into cardiovascular physiology and disease and is a rapidly developing field. However, in this chapter the emphasis is on the use of these techniques as practical aids to diagnosis and prognostication in clinical cases.


4.1 Electrocardiography

4.2 Echocardiography

4.3 Radiography

4.4 Catheterisation

4.5 Indirect blood pressure monitoring

4.6 Phonocardiography

4.7 Clinical pathology