6.2.3 Other clinical findings
6.2.3 Other clinical findings

A thorough clinical examination is required in all animals in which a murmur compatible with a diagnosis of MR is found. Mucous membrane colour is likely to be normal in all but the most severe cases, and capillary refill time is usually within normal limits except in animals with CHF. The facial pulse quality should be assessed, but this is also unlikely to be abnormal except in animals in heart failure. The pulse rate is measured once the horse is at rest. The relationship between the pulse and the heart sounds should be examined in animals with an arrhythmia or a tachycardia. The nostrils should be examined for evidence of pulmonary oedema. The jugular veins are inspected for evidence of distension or pulsation. The lung fields should be auscultated, and a re-breathing test should be performed in selected cases. The abdomen and distal limbs should be examined for signs of dependant oedema (see section 3.3.7).