3.4 Auscultation
3.4 Auscultation

Auscultation provides invaluable information about the events of the cardiac cycle and blood flow. A methodical approach allows the maximum amount of information to be derived from auscultation. The novice clinician should take every opportunity to auscultate normal animals, so that the wide range of normal sounds is appreciated.


3.4.1 The generation of the heart sounds

3.4.2 The first heart sound

3.4.3 The second heart sound

3.4.4 The third heart sound

3.4.5 The fourth heart sound or atrial sound

3.4.6 Heart rate and rhythm