3.3 The Clinical examination
3.3 The Clinical examination

The clinical examination described below places particular emphasis on the cardiovascular system. A check list for significant findings in horses withsuspected cardiac disease is included in Table 3.1. However, a complete general clinical examination is also required. The examination depends on careful observation and a knowledge of the wide variation of normality which may be encountered. The findings should be accurately recorded so that they can be used for future reference. A wide range of clinical signs may be seen in animals with cardiac disease. These range from no signs, to poor athletic performance, to signs of CHF (Table 3.2).


3.3.1 The patients environment

3.3.2 Patient attitude and conditions

3.3.3 Mucous membranes

3.3.4 Arterial pulse

3.3.5 General inspection of the head and neck

3.3.6 The jugular vein

3.3.7 Dependent oedema

3.3.8 Palpation and percussion