Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Clinical Examination

A thorough and methodical method of history taking and clinical examination is the basis for assessment of horses with suspected cardiac disease. Once these tasks have been performed it becomes possible to select appropriate further diagnostic tests. In equine cardiology, it is particularly important to put the findings in the context of the athletic requirements for the individual animal.


3.1 Background details

3.2 History

3.3 The clinical examination

3.4 Ausultation

3.5 Cardiac murmurs

3.6 The practice of auscultation

3.7 Examination of the respiratory system

3.8 The effects of exercise