2.2.2 Left-sided congestive heart failure
The term left-sided CHF refers to excessive LV filling pressure and consequent increased pressure in the left atrium (LA) and in the pulmonary veins. Acute left CHF results in an increase in the pressure within the pulmonary capillaries and leakage of fluid into the interstitial space. This is called pulmonary oedema. It may result in the appearance of frothy white or blood-tinged fluid at the nostrils. Animals with pulmonary oedema are usually severely exercise intolerant, hyperpnoeic and tachypnoeic.