Chapter 2
Chapter 2

Cardiovascular Pathology and Pathophysiology

In order to recognise the clinical signs of abnormal cardiac function and to apply effective treatment strategies, it is essential to understand the changes that take place in heart disease. In its broadest sense, pathology can be approached from the standpoint of pathophysiology, clinical pathology, gross pathology and histopathology.


2.1 Heart disease in horses compared with other species

2.2 The pathophysiology of heart failure

2.3 Clinical pathology

2.4 Pathology