This is not an exhaustive list, but offers the clinician some guidelines on what to consider when formulating a differential diagnostic list. The breed prevalence may vary between countries or even regions within countries.

There are additionally some broad generalizations that can be helpful.


Cardiac diseases Respiratory diseases

AVVD AV valve dysplasia
AVVE AV valve endocardiosis
DCM dilated cardiomyopathy
PAS persistent atrial standstill
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
PE pericardial effusions
PS pulmonic stenosis
SAS subaortic stenosis
SSS sick sinus syndrome
ToF Tetralogy of Fallot
VSD ventricular septal defect
BUAS brachycephalic upper airway syndrome
CD ciliary dyskinesia
HT hypoplastic trachea
LP laryngeal paralysis
PIF pulmonary interstitial fibrosis
TC tracheal collapse

Breed Cardiac

Beagle PS  
Bichon frise   CD
Boston terrier AWE  
Boxer SAS, PS, DCM, PE  
Cairn terrier   PIF
Cavalier King Charles spaniel AWE, PDA BUAS
Chihuahua PS, AWE  
Cocker spaniel DCM, AWE, PDA, PS  
Dobermann pinscher DCM  
English bulldog SAS, PS, ToF HT, BUAS
English bull terrier AWD, SAS  
Fox terrier PS, AWE  
German shepherd dog PDA, SAS, DCM, PE, AWD  
Gordon setter AWE, DCM CD
Great Dane AWD, DCM, PE  
Irish setter AWD, DCM, PDA LP
Irish wolfhound DCM  
Keeshond ToF, VSD  
Miniature poodle PDA, AWE TC
Miniature schnauzer SSS  
Newfoundland SAS, DCM  
Old English sheepdog DCM, AWD, PAS  
Pekinese AWE BUAS
Pomeranian PDA  
Pug   BUAS
Retrievers (Labrador and golden) AWD, PE LP
St. Bernard DCM, PE  
Samoyed SAS  
Schnauzer AWE, PS  
Shetland sheepdog PDA  
Springer spaniel DCM, PAS CD
West Highland white terrier PS PIF
Yorkshire terrier AWE TC