This is a less commonly recognised defect in small animals, probably because it rarely produces clinical signs. The aetiology is unknown, and ASD is more commonly recognised as a complication of other congenital heart defects.




ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: Pathophysiology

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: History and clinical signs

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: ECG

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: Radiography

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: Angiography

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: Echocardiography

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: Treatment

ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT: Prognosis


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