This is a fairly common congenital defect in dogs and one of the more common defects in cats. VSDs in cats are often associated with defects of the atrial septum or atrioventricular valves. Such complex defects in cats are referred to as endocardial cushion defects and typically consist of a high VSD, a low atrial septal defect (ostium primum) and notched or cleft atrioventricular valves.

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: Aetiology/pathology

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: Pathophysiology

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: History and clinical signs

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: ECG

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: Radiography

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: Angiography

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: Echocardiography

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: Treatment

VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT: Prognosis


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