'The first indication of cardiac failure is to be found in diminished tolerance to exercise. Of the very numerous tests of cardiac efficiency... there is none that approaches in delicacy the symptom breathlessness.' (Lewis, 1933)


Heart failure (HF) can be defined as a failure of the heart to circulate enough blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body at normal filling pressures. Congestive heart failure (CHF) implies that there is a damming back of blood behind the failing heart, into the pulmonary or systemic circulations.
Heart failure is the most common clinical presentation of dogs and cats with heart disease. Congestive heart failure is a sequel to many of the various causes of heart failure. Its initial treatment is very similar in most cases regardless of the cause, i.e. reduction in the congestion (volume overload) by diuresis. However, the primary cause of the heart failure should be determined so that specific treatment and the best therapeutic strategy can be instituted.

   MECHANISMS LEADING TO HEART FAILURE
  COMPENSATORY RESPONSES TO HEART FAILURE
  CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF HEART FAILURE
  AETIOLOGY OF HEART FAILURE
  MANAGEMENT AND THERAPY OF HEART FAILURE
  ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

BACK TO SECTION MENU

BACK TO CONTENTS