There are two forms of cardiac ultrasound: two-dimensional (2-D) and M-mode echocardiography, which is commonly used and available; and Doppler ultrasound (spectral and colour flow mapping), which is usually confined to centres with a trained cardiologist and requires considerable skill and knowledge to perform and interpret.

By combining the various aspects of echocardiography it is now possible, invasively, to accurately diagnose cardiac disease, detect abnormal blood flow (murmurs), quantify ventricular function and determine the severity of lesions to offer a prognosis.



   EQUIPMENT
  ANIMAL PREPARATION
  NORMAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION
  TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
  M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
  DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
  CONTRAST ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

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