Direct injections are required to demonstrate these satisfactorily as visualisation of negative contrast effects from the shunt with a non-selective study is unlikely.
|·||This ideally requires a direct left ventricular injection.|
|·||Simultaneous filling of the left and right ventricles is seen.|
A jet of contrast agent may be seen across the VSD.
Patent ductus arteriosus
This requires injection into the ascending aorta ( Fig. 2.6 ). Dilation of the aorta or pulmonary artery may be seen.
Sometimes a non-selective injection will visualise the PDA.
Atrial septal defect
Back to top